Remove a County Court Judgment

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Remove a Business County Court Judgment

County Court judgment

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In England and Wales,[1] County Court judgments (CCJs) are legal decisions handed down by the County Court.[2] Judgments for monetary sums are entered on the statutory Register of Judgments, Orders and Fines,[3] which is checked by credit reference agencies to assess the credit-worthiness of individuals.

An alleged debtor is sent postal notification of an impending County Court case, and has fourteen days to respond, by paying the money, admitting owing a smaller sum, denying owing it, or going to a court hearing.[4] If there is no response judgement will be granted against the debtor.

If the debtor does not make payment in response to a CCJ, the creditor may apply for a charging order, which would secure the debt on a property. Creditors can also apply for an attachment of earnings which would oblige the debtor’s employer to deduct monies from their salary and send them to the court. A third-party debt order would oblige a third party who holds money belonging to the debtor (for example a bank) to pay the debt. It is also possible to have the court appoint a County Court bailiff to collect the debt. A bailiff is an official of the court who has some powers to seize goods and sell them at auction to settle a debt.

Once a CCJ has been entered, if not paid in full within thirty days it is kept on record for six years by the register and credit reference agencies (CRAs); there is no way to expunge the record of a correctly granted CCJ, although later payment will be recorded. The record is removed after six years. The Office of Fair Trading warned about credit repair companies that offer, for a fee, quick-fix schemes purported to remove a file from the CCJ register.[5] In some cases a CCJ is made against someone who did not receive the notification of the court case, often due to it being sent to an incorrect or former address, and is not aware of the judgement; this may lead to unexpected refusal of credit. Checking of the Register or CRA records will find such cases.

The records can be checked by anybody on payment of a small fee.[3] When a person applies for credit or finance, potential creditors normally check CRA records, refusing applicants considered to have a bad credit history; a CCJ on record makes it much more difficult to obtain finance through the normal channels. Some lenders will lend to people with CCJs against them, but usually on unfavourable terms, e.g. through a very expensive payday loan.

If regular payments to the court are being made this is recorded on the credit file in addition to the record of the CCJ, and goes some way to lessen the negative credit rating impact. Once the full amount owed is repaid the CCJ is marked as ‘satisfied’, but remains on file. The record of a CCJ which is satisfied within one month can be removed altogether on application to the Register (and hence the CRAs).[5]

Business

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Business is the activity of making one’s living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (such as goods and services).[1][2][need quotation to verify][3][4] Simply put, it is “any activity or enterprise entered into for profit. It does not mean it is a company, a corporation, partnership, or have any such formal organization, but it can range from a street peddler to General Motors.”[5]

Having a business name does not separate the business entity from the owner, which means that the owner of the business is responsible and liable for debts incurred by the business. If the business acquires debts, the creditors can go after the owner’s personal possessions. A business structure does not allow for corporate tax rates. The proprietor is personally taxed on all income from the business.

The term is also often used colloquially (but not by lawyers or by public officials) to refer to a company. A company, on the other hand, is a separate legal entity and provides for limited liability, as well as corporate tax rates. A company structure is more complicated and expensive to set up, but offers more protection and benefits for the owner.

Contents

Forms

Main article: List of business entities

Forms of business ownership vary by jurisdiction, but several common entities exist:

  • Sole proprietorship: A sole proprietorship, also known as a sole trader, is owned by one person and operates for their benefit. The owner operates the business alone and may hire employees. A sole proprietor has unlimited liability for all obligations incurred by the business, whether from operating costs or judgments against the business. All assets of the business belong to a sole proprietor, including, for example, a computer infrastructure, any inventorymanufacturing equipment, or retail fixtures, as well as any real property owned by the sole proprietor.
  • Partnership: A partnership is a business owned by two or more people. In most forms of partnerships, each partner has unlimited liability for the debts incurred by the business. The three most prevalent types of for-profit partnerships are general partnershipslimited partnerships, and limited liability partnerships.[6]
  • Corporation: The owners of a corporation have limited liability and the business has a separate legal personality from its owners. Corporations can be either government-owned or privately owned, and they can organize either for profit or as nonprofit organizations. A privately owned, for-profit corporation is owned by its shareholders, who elect a board of directors to direct the corporation and hire its managerial staff. A privately owned, for-profit corporation can be either privately held by a small group of individuals, or publicly held, with publicly traded shares listed on a stock exchange.
  • Cooperative: Often referred to as a “co-op”, a cooperative is a limited-liability business that can organize as for-profit or not-for-profit. A cooperative differs from a corporation in that it has members, not shareholders, and they share decision-making authority. Cooperatives are typically classified as either consumer cooperatives or worker cooperatives. Cooperatives are fundamental to the ideology of economic democracy.
  • Limited liability companies (LLC), limited liability partnerships, and other specific types of business organization protect their owners or shareholders from business failure by doing business under a separate legal entity with certain legal protections. In contrast, unincorporated businesses or persons working on their own are usually not as protected.[7][8]
  • Franchises: A franchise is a system in which entrepreneurs purchase the rights to open and run a business from a larger corporation.[9] Franchising in the United States is widespread and is a major economic powerhouse. One out of twelve retail businesses in the United States are franchised and 8 million people are employed in a franchised business.[10]
  • company limited by guarantee: Commonly used where companies are formed for non-commercial purposes, such as clubs or charities. The members guarantee the payment of certain (usually nominal) amounts if the company goes into insolvent liquidation, but otherwise, they have no economic rights in relation to the company. This type of company is common in England. A company limited by guarantee may be with or without having share capital.
  • company limited by shares: The most common form of the company used for business ventures. Specifically, a limited company is a “company in which the liability of each shareholder is limited to the amount individually invested” with corporations being “the most common example of a limited company.”[11] This type of company is common in England and many English-speaking countries. A company limited by shares may be a
  • A company limited by guarantee with a share capital: A hybrid entity, usually used where the company is formed for non-commercial purposes, but the activities of the company are partly funded by investors who expect a return. This type of company may no longer be formed in the UK, although provisions still exist in law for them to exist.[12]
  • limited liability company: “A company—statutorily authorized in certain states—that is characterized by limited liability, management by members or managers, and limitations on ownership transfer”, i.e., L.L.C.[11] LLC structure has been called “hybrid” in that it “combines the characteristics of a corporation and of a partnership or sole proprietorship”. Like a corporation, it has limited liability for members of the company, and like a partnership, it has “flow-through taxation to the members” and must be “dissolved upon the death or bankruptcy of a member”.[13]
  • An unlimited company with or without a share capital: A hybrid entity, a company where the liability of members or shareholders for the debts (if any) of the company are not limited. In this case, the doctrine of a veil of incorporation does not apply.

Less common types of companies are:

  • Companies formed by letters patent: Most corporations by letters patent are corporations sole and not companies as the term is commonly understood today.
  • Charter corporations: Before the passing of modern companies legislation, these were the only types of companies. Now they are relatively rare, except for very old companies that still survive (of which there are still many, particularly many British banks), or modern societies that fulfill a quasi-regulatory function (for example, the Bank of England is a corporation formed by a modern charter).
  • Statutory companies: Relatively rare today, certain companies have been formed by a private statute passed in the relevant jurisdiction.

Note that “Ltd after the company’s name signifies limited company, and PLC (public limited company) indicates that its shares are widely held.”[14]

In legal parlance, the owners of a company are normally referred to as the “members”. In a company limited or unlimited by shares (formed or incorporated with a share capital), this will be the shareholders. In a company limited by guarantee, this will be the guarantors. Some offshore jurisdictions have created special forms of offshore company in a bid to attract business for their jurisdictions. Examples include “segregated portfolio companies” and restricted purpose companies.

There are, however, many, many sub-categories of types of company that can be formed in various jurisdictions in the world.

Companies are also sometimes distinguished into public companies and private companies for legal and regulatory purposes. Public companies are companies whose shares can be publicly traded, often (although not always) on a stock exchange which imposes listing requirements/Listing Rules as to the issued shares, the trading of shares and a future issue of shares to help bolster the reputation of the exchange or particular market of exchange. Private companies do not have publicly traded shares, and often contain restrictions on transfers of shares. In some jurisdictions, private companies have maximum numbers of shareholders.

parent company is a company that owns enough voting stock in another firm to control management and operations by influencing or electing its board of directors; the second company being deemed as a subsidiary of the parent company. The definition of a parent company differs by jurisdiction, with the definition normally being defined by way of laws dealing with companies in that jurisdiction.

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